Find common Themes by key term:

Attitude RootThemeDefinition of the theme
Conspiracist ideationBig PharmaPharmaceutical companies conspiring to profit over people or test new drugs.
Conspiracist ideationGovernment cover-upHealth authorities and companies conspiring to withhold important information from the public.
Conspiracist ideationPopulation controlVaccines are a way to sterilize, depopulate or track the existing population.
Conspiracist ideationTargeting marginalised groupsVaccines are intended to harm disadvantaged groups or poor countries.
Conspiracist ideationMade-up threatVaccine-preventable diseases are exaggerated or do not exist.
Distorted risk perceptionVaccination is unnecessaryGeneral arguments portraying vaccination as unnecessary, redundant or unimportant.
Distorted risk perceptionDisease is not seriousDiseases are perceived as mild or even positive for child development and the immune system.
Distorted risk perceptionMisperception of riskDismissal of the risk of getting the disease, considering its incidence to be irrelevant.
Distorted risk perceptionCost-benefit analysisVaccinations are perceived as being riskier than the diseases themselves.
Distorted risk perceptionVaccination is not for meLifestyle, religion, good health or natural immunity would be enough to avoid disease.
DistrustNegligent healthcareHealth authorities are incompetent or uncompassionate.
DistrustUntrustworthy dataVaccinations are experimental and based on incomplete or biased data.
DistrustIt is just a theoryScientific studies on vaccines are based on controversial theories.
DistrustExaggerated riskMedical authorities are overreacting and overusing vaccines.
DistrustFinancial interestsInformation from companies about vaccines is motivated by financial interests.
DistrustSystemic corruptionHealthcare authorities are corrupt and have conflicts of interest.
DistrustAbsence of liabilityPharmaceutical companies are not liable for vaccine damage.
DistrustMarginalised groupsPowerful groups oppress the disadvantaged by imposing vaccination.
DistrustDo your own researchOnly one's personal research is to be trusted; listening to experts is for lazy people.
Epistemic relativismTruth is relativeRejection of scientific epistemology and objectivity, claiming that knowledge is relative.
Epistemic relativismAnecdotal evidenceOverreliance on testimonies and personal experiences that contradict scientific research.
Epistemic relativismEpistemic superiorityAlternative perspectives on health as more comprehensive and informed than science.
Epistemic relativismIndividualistic epistemologyPeople are experts on their bodies and children (e.g., mother knows best, intuition and instinct).
Epistemic relativismAll or nothingImpossible expectations: We should not accept anything that is less than 100% effective.
Fear and phobiasSide effectsFear to side effects that are known to be caused by vaccines (e.g., fever, sore arm and fatigue).
Fear and phobiasSafety concernFear is induced by portraying vaccines as a general safety concern (e.g., hot lots).
Fear and phobiasDreadful injuriesSevere pathological conditions believed to be caused by vaccines (e.g., autism and infertility).
Fear and phobiasToxicity hazardVaccines contaminate the human body with toxins, heavy metals and viruses, or alter DNA.
Fear and phobiasContraindicationsRejection due to pre-existing conditions (e.g., allergies, pregnancy and young age).
Fear and phobiasImmune compromiseFear that one's immune system will be compromised or overwhelmed by vaccination.
Fear and phobiasTrypanophobiaArguments reflecting extreme fear of injections or hypodermic needles.
Moral concernsUnethical experimentationNon-consensual experimentation, child experimentation or animal mistreatment.
Moral concernsAnti-abortion positionMoral outrage at the use of cells or tissues from aborted foetuses to produce vaccines.
Moral concernsSexual promiscuityHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine would be a license for sexual activity at a young age.
Moral concernsHealth is not businessPharmaceutical profits are immoral.
Moral concernsAnti-utilitarianismIt is not morally right to sacrifice individuals for the sake of many.
Moral concernsBad parentingThose who rely on vaccination for their child's health demonstrate poor values.
ReactanceResisting coercionPublic health campaigns punishing and harassing people into getting a vaccine.
ReactancePersonal autonomyVaccine rejection being represented as a free, autonomous or empowered personal choice.
ReactanceVindication of civil libertiesVaccination is perceived as an authoritarian or totalitarian violation of civil liberties.
ReactanceGoing against the herdThe vaccinated are ignorant, uncritical or eager to be shepherded by a paternalistic state.
Religious concernsImpurityVaccines contain materials that are prohibited (e.g., porcine products and fetal cells).
Religious concernsAppeal to natural orderVaccines interfere with the natural order of things or are against God's will.
Religious concernsReligious authorityReligious passages or leaders prohibiting vaccination.
Religious concernsThe work of godVaccinations defile or adulterate the human body, which was created in God’s image.
Religious concernsReligious exemptionsNot allowing religious exemptions to vaccines is perceived as discriminatory.
Perceived self-interestFreeridingPreference for taking advantage of herd immunity rather than taking the vaccine.
Perceived self-interestLuxury measuresOther people should take the measures that I can afford (e.g., quarantine and social distance).
Unwarranted beliefsAlternative medicineTraditional and natural remedies have a similar record of healing and no side effects.
Unwarranted beliefsNatural is bestNatural and holistic approaches, mainly those based on body’s natural immunity, are better.
Unwarranted beliefsOvermedicalizationVaccines overload the immune system. People are getting too many vaccines too soon.
Unwarranted beliefsAlternatives to vaccinationGood lifestyles, hygiene and personal responsibility are preferable to vaccines.
Unwarranted beliefsScience denialLack of consensus on the benefits and theories of vaccination.
Unwarranted beliefsAbsurd causalityImplausible side effects and contaminants (e.g., autism or active viruses).
Unwarranted beliefsVaccinated are a threatVaccinated people are less healthy, spread diseases or do not take precautions.
Unwarranted beliefsFallacious logicReversed burden of proof and misuse of statistics for causal inferences.
Unwarranted beliefsDisease disappears by itselfThe disease will disappear on its own, following a natural cycle.
Worldview and politicsScience-related populismScience and scientists as belonging to a malign elite group opposed to ordinary people.
Worldview and politicsLibertarianismVindication of civil liberties against medical authoritarianism and overreaching states.
Worldview and politicsPoliticization of vaccinesThe science and actions behind vaccinations is shaped by political and economic agendas.
Worldview and politicsTraditionalismAdhering to one's own cultural tradition is deemed more important than vaccination.
Worldview and politicsRejection of modernityConcerns raised by groups practicing a lifestyle that avoids modern technology.